Today I would like to tell you a summary of the events in Europe from 570 AD-1700 AD.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, the barbarian tribes, some of which had destroyed Rome, began to develop their own little countries. By 570 each tribe was growing and they lived in what is the modern day country.
In 570 AD a man named Muhammad, the founder of Islam, was born. At the age of 40 (in 610) he had his first “visions” in which an angel supposedly visited him and told Muhammad to write down sayings that the angel told him. The saying were combined and put into a book, known today as the Qu’ran. Islam proved a very big threat to Christendom. In 732 Islamic armies invaded the bottom of Spain and started to push their way up into France. Thankfully they were stopped at the Battle of Tours. Around the 1090s the Crusades began. The first Crusade was somewhat productive in defeating the Muslims but the others were a failure.
This time was also showered with religious men. Two for example, Thomas Aquinas and St. Francis of Assisi were great assets to the Catholic Church. John Wycliffe was one of the early reformers. He believed that Christ was the head of the Church not the Pope. His greatest work was translating the Bible into English.
In 1348 a plague known as the Black Death swept through Europe. 30% – 60% of the people died of the disease.
In 1435 Constantinople fell to the Turks. Thus the mainland of Europe was open to the Muslims. However they were able to be slowed down.
Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1449. This opened the doors for the Bible to be spread faster. Also the ideas of the Reformation were published much faster.
In 1492 Columbus sailed to the New World. This paved the road for the colonization of North and South America. In 1519 Ferdinand Magellan tried to sail around the world; however he died on the way.
In 1517 a monk named Martin Luther nailed the 95 Theses to the Church door in Gutenberg. The theses condemned indulgences and the Pope. Luther was excommunicated from the Catholic Church in 1521. He went into hiding for a few years and while he was hiding he translated the Latin Bible into German. This paved the way for the Protestant Reformation. John Calvin, a French Reformer, wrote a summary what the Protestants believed, called The Institutes of the Christian Religion. He also pastored a Church in Geneva, Switzerland. in addition William Tyndale, an English Reformer, translated the Bible into English; however he paid with his life for defying the Pope.
In 1556 Mary I became Queen of England. She had 280 Protestants killed because they wouldn’t return to Catholicism. However Mary’s sister, Elizabeth was very Protestant. When Elizabeth was Queen, England became very prosperous. It was the beginning of the end of Catholicism in England. Also the Spanish Armada was defeated in a great battle that destroyed the Spanish Area, and it entered the Golden Age of England. Sir Francis Drake, a English Explorer who was also very important in the defeat of the Spanish Armada, sailed around the world. He left in 1577 and returned in 1780.
In May of 1606, Jamestown, a English colony, was founded. Soon many people headed for the New World. In 1620 the Pilgrims landed in Plymouth. In the 1640s Roger Williams founded Rhode Island.
Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler were astronomers that promoted the Heliocentric view of the Solar System. Isaac Newton founded Calculus and studied gravitation.
Charles I, King of England, tried to force Anglicanism on the Church of England. However Parliament disagreed with him and the conflict lead to the English Civil War. Charles I was defeated and on January 30, 1649 he was beheaded.
In the colonies a revival, known as the Great Awakening, brought great change to the New World. Jonathan Edwards brought to Northampton a great change.
In 1688 William III invaded England to take over the Monarchy of England. James II, the old king, was somewhat Catholic and the people of England didn’t like that.
In 1706, 1707, 1773, and 1751 England passed laws that greatly limited the trade of the colonies with other countries besides England. This paved the way for the American Revelation.
I hope you have enjoyed this essay and I’ll be back next week with 8 Grade History