The Seven Years War

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War! Today let’s look at what I call the First World War. It was fought in the 1750s and was very important in forming the British Empire.

 

How did the Seven Years War start? Well, first, let’s ask another question. Have you heard of the French and Indian War? Well, the French and Indian War was only a small part of the Seven Years War.

 

In 1754 Colonel George Washington, yes, the same George Washington of the American Revolution, was leading a small body of men to help protect some British men who were building a fort in the northwest wilderness.  However, some of the Indians who were with Washington saw a detachment of French heading their way. Washington, not waiting to find out what the French were doing, attacked and defeated the French. Only one French solider escaped.The commander of the French, Joseph Coulon de Villies de Jumonville, was killed in the aftermath of the skirmish. Washington and his men pressed on to the fort only to find that the British workers were gone. Washington seized the fort, also know as Fort Necessity. But soon Jumonvillle’s brother attacked Washington and won. Thus,the Seven Years War started in the colonies.

 

The British sent General Braddock to suppress the French. Twelve hundred men were sent with Braddock. General Braddock, who had recruited Washington, was trying to reach Fort Duquesne. The forest seemed to be on the enemies’ side, but eventually Braddock reached the river by the fort. Braddock wanted to cross the river; however, Washington advised Braddock not to go. Braddock didn’t heed Washington council, and on July 8,1755, the Battle of Monongahela started. As soon as Braddock crossed the river, the French and Indians attacked. Even though the British had more men, they were out skilled. Eight hundred eighteen men were either killed or captured. Braddock was hit and a few days later he died. However, despite many defeats, the British gained the upper hand. In fact, in 1759, also known as the Annus mirabilis or Year of Miracles, they captured three French forts, Ticonderoga, Québec, and Fort Niagard.

 

But the Seven Years War was much bigger than the skirmish in the colonies. But first, let’s get some background. In 1756 the Diplomatic Revolution happened. What was it? Well, before 1756 the alliances between nations in Europe were as follows: Britain was allied with Austria and France was allied with Prussia. However,the Diplomatic Revolution changed all that. So now Britain was with Prussia and France with Austria. The Seven Years War was Britain, Prussia, Portugal, and Hanover vs. France, Austria, Russia, Spain, and Sweden. Prussia did very well in the war, and when the French and Austrians invaded Prussia, they were driven back. Britain did very badly in the beginning, but in 1759 that changed ,and the British stared dominating their enemies.

 

The Seven Years War was also fought in colonies. The West African coast, India, Philippines, South America, and the Caribbean were all disputed and fought over places.

But in 1763 the Treaty of Paris was signed. All of the lands that were fought over were returned to status quo ante bellum. Britain gained most of Florida and Cuba. They also captured some French colonies. They gained most of India. The British Empire had began to become a dominate world power.

 

I hope you’ve enjoyed this essay.

 

Samuel Duarte JM

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China and India

 

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Hi! Today let’s look at two countries, China and India

 

China is the third largest nation in area size. It has a vast and diverse landscape; with deserts, subtropical forests, and some of the tallest mountains in the world. China had five dynasties before 500AD. The Xia, Shang, Zhou, Qin, and Han. The Qin dynasty built the Great Wall of China, and also the infamous Terracotta Army. However the Han dynasty was over thrown by the Mongol Empire. In 1279AD the Mongol Empire reached all the way to Poland and Iran! Genghis Khan and Kubla Khan were two important emperors of the Mongol Empire.

 

India was one of Britain’s most important colonies. Most of India is flat, making a prime place to start a colony. During the 1750s the British Empire was supplied with a lot of interesting and valuable things. When Britain was in control of India, they made over 475 trillion dollars! That is a ton of money!

 

China and India are really interesting to study. Much has come out of these two big nations which has changed the world. Also China has one of the greatest architectural wonders of the ancient world.

 

Samuel Duarte JM

My You Tube Strategy

 

 

Hi! Today I would like to tell you about my YT strategy in an making a YT Cannel.

 

What do I want to do and why? I would like to start a channel about History. It will be about one minute long and will cover interesting and odd facts about History. I may include pictures and might have article attached once in a while. Why? Most people know little or nothing about history. My channel would bring to light lesser known facts of history. Also if I keep I under a minute people wouldn’t get easily distracted and it would be more interesting. I would try to make it not to long or dull.

 

Describe you target audience and your value proposition. My target audience would be grade school homeschool students. My value proposition is, if you don’t know history you are doomed to repeat it. Those who have no idea what happed will make the same mistake. This is very prevalent in our day and age. We as a county are no being taught history and if we do not watch out we will do what some country like Rome did.

 

If you have the opportunity, maybe you could start a YT channel. I hope you have a great week.

 

 

Samuel Duarte

Controlling Small Expenses.

 

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Hello, today would like to tell you about how I would control small expenses, if I had some.

 

One, cut back on fast food. $10 a day can easily add up. If I need lunch while I’m in town I probably should have thought about it last night. Why? Because I could have used leftovers form dinner to make my lunch. Also I could have made a sandwich. If I go to town two days a week and buy a lunch that costs $10. In a years time I would have spent $1,040!!! That’s a lot of money!

 

Two, slow down on buying apps/games. I don’t have to buy every single app in the world. I could save my money to buy a car, house, or a nice piece of property.

 

Three, control impulse buying. I go into a store to by milk, bread, and butter. Suddenly a see some cool item and before I know it I already have bought it! This habit needs to be stopped. You should buy what is one your list and that is all. It is hard to do but it pays off.

 

Being able to control these bad habits will help you to learn how to manage larger amounts of money.

 

 

 

Samuel Duarte.

The Middle East

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Today let’s look at an area known as the Middle East.

 

First of all where is the Middle East? Well, if you look at a map, find the Mediterranean Sea. Then move your finger to the left, and when you reach land that land will be the Middle East. The modern day countries in the Middle East are; Iraq, Iran, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Yemen, UAE, Qatar, and Oman. This region is hot and sandy. Some of the countries have tall mountains. But the weather is almost always hot.

 

The Middle East was and is one of the most fought over places in the world. From 1000 BC to 500 AD; Persia, Alexander the Great, Parthia, and Rome, had occupied the Middle East. But after Rome fell, the Middle East wasn’t under any control.

However, Islam started to became more dominant and in 750 AD Islam took of the Middle Eastern Government. From then on the Islamic horde swept across Europe. In 1453, Constantinople (which was in Europe) fell and with it fell the Byzantine Empire (or the remains of the Eastern Roman Empire.) At its height the Ottoman Empire (another name for the Arabs) controlled the Middle East, Parts of Spain, and Eastern Europe. In fact, in Jerusalem are two of the most famous religious buildings in the world. The Church of the Holy Sepulture (Judeo/Christian) and the infamous Dome of the Rock (Islamic). The Dome of the Rock is built on the place where Solomon’s Temple stood in Bible times.

 

The Middle East is a very interesting to study. It shows how a religion can spread over half the world in a few hundred years. And today we see the consequences of the Islamic Jihad being played out. Hope you enjoyed this essay.

 

 

Samuel Duarte

Summary of 7th Grade History

 

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Today I would like to tell you a summary of the events in Europe from 570 AD-1700 AD.

After the fall of the Roman Empire, the barbarian tribes, some of which had destroyed Rome, began to develop their own little countries. By 570 each tribe was growing and they lived in what is the modern day country.

 

In 570 AD a man named Muhammad, the founder of Islam, was born. At the age of 40 (in 610) he had his first “visions” in which an angel supposedly visited him and told Muhammad to write down sayings that the angel told him. The saying were combined and  put into a book, known today as the Qu’ran. Islam proved a very big threat to Christendom. In 732 Islamic armies invaded the bottom of Spain and started to push their way up into France. Thankfully they were stopped at the Battle of Tours. Around the 1090s the Crusades began. The first Crusade was somewhat productive in defeating the Muslims but the others were a failure.

 

This time was also showered with religious men. Two for example, Thomas Aquinas and St. Francis of Assisi were great assets to the Catholic Church. John Wycliffe was one of the early reformers. He believed that Christ was the head of the Church not the Pope. His greatest work was translating the Bible into English.

 

In 1348 a plague known as the Black Death swept through Europe. 30% – 60% of the people died of the disease.

 

In 1435 Constantinople fell to the Turks. Thus the mainland of Europe was open to the Muslims. However they  were able to be slowed down.

 

Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in 1449. This opened the doors for the Bible to be spread faster. Also the ideas of the Reformation were published much faster.

 

In 1492 Columbus sailed to the New World. This paved the road for the colonization of North and South America. In 1519 Ferdinand Magellan tried to sail around the world; however he died on the way.

 

In 1517 a monk named Martin Luther nailed the 95 Theses to the Church door in Gutenberg. The theses condemned indulgences and the Pope. Luther was excommunicated from the Catholic Church in 1521. He went into hiding for a few years and while he was hiding he translated the Latin Bible into German. This paved the way for the Protestant Reformation. John Calvin, a French Reformer, wrote a summary what the Protestants believed, called The Institutes of the Christian Religion. He also pastored a Church in Geneva, Switzerland. in addition William Tyndale, an English Reformer, translated the Bible into English; however he paid with his life for defying the Pope.

 

In 1556 Mary I became Queen of England. She had 280 Protestants killed because they wouldn’t return to Catholicism. However Mary’s sister, Elizabeth was very Protestant. When Elizabeth was Queen, England became very prosperous. It was the beginning of the end of Catholicism in England. Also the Spanish Armada was defeated in a great battle that destroyed the Spanish Area, and it entered the Golden Age of England. Sir Francis Drake, a English Explorer who was also very important in the defeat of the Spanish Armada, sailed around the world. He left in 1577 and returned in 1780.

 

In May of 1606, Jamestown, a English colony, was founded. Soon many people headed for the New World. In 1620 the Pilgrims landed in Plymouth. In the 1640s Roger Williams founded Rhode Island.

 

 

Galileo Galilei and Johannes Kepler were astronomers that promoted the Heliocentric view of the Solar System. Isaac Newton founded Calculus and studied gravitation.

Charles I, King of England, tried to force Anglicanism on the Church of England. However Parliament disagreed with him and the conflict lead to the English Civil War. Charles I was defeated and on January 30, 1649 he was beheaded.

 

In the colonies a revival, known as the Great Awakening, brought great change to the New World. Jonathan Edwards brought to Northampton a great change.

 

In 1688 William III invaded England to take over the Monarchy of England. James II, the old king, was somewhat Catholic and the people of England didn’t like that.

 

In 1706, 1707, 1773, and 1751 England passed laws that greatly limited the trade of the colonies with other countries besides England. This paved the way for the American Revelation.

 

I hope you have enjoyed this essay and I’ll be back next week with 8 Grade History

 

Samuel Duarte

The Divine Right of Kings

 

 

Today the Kings of England rule with the Parliament, but it wasn’t always so. In the fifteen hundreds an English king named Henry VIII tired to divorce his wife, Catherine of Aragon because she had borne him no son. However when Henry asked Pope Clement VI permission the Pope denied the request. Henry in turn wrote an article entitled The Act of Supremacy. It stated that the King of England was the head of the Church of England not the Pope. Henry VIII promoted the idea that the king was subject to no one. This idea is called The Divine Right of Kings.

 

James I, great grand nephew of Henry VIII, also believed in The Divine Right of Kings. He believed that he could over rule Parliament’s decision. James I wanted to control the people and the religion of England. Parliament did not agree with him. But James I didn’t provoke Parliament at that time. His ideas, though were put in to fruition during the reign of James I son Charles I.

 

Charles I put his fathers idea into action. When Charles appointed William Laud as Archbishop of Canterbury; it threw the nation into an uproar. Why? Laud was strongly Anglican, as was Charles himself, and Lauds ideas where very close to the Roman Catholic teachings. Parliament was upset at Charles but Charles was more upset then they were! Charles believed that he was the one who called the shots on matters of religion. Furious Charles dismissed Parliament of a period of 11 years. Eventuality Charles I called them back together. But tensions rose. Finely in November 1641 Charles and his allies, the Loyalists, raised their battle standard and thus entered the English Civil War. Charles was soundly defeated by the Parliamentarian Roundheads, led by Oliver Cromwell, at the Battle of Naseby. Charles was tried and condemned for high treason. He was beheaded on January 30, 1649.

 

Oliver Cromwell took over control of England after Charles died. Cromwell disagreed with The Divine Right of Kings and instead believed that the king had to answer to Parliament.He sought to bring peace to England. Cromwell was made the Protectorate of the Common Wealth of England.But Cromwell died in 1658 and his son, Richard, was not able to fill in his father’s shoes. And in 1660 Charles I son, Charles II was brought back to England.

Why is the Divine Right of Kings wrong? “By Me (God) kings reign and rulers decree what is just.” Prov 8:15 Let us not be like these men but let us listen to our elders and to God.

 

Samuel Duarte